Landscape is a social product; particular landscapes tell us something about cultural histories and attitudes. landscape results from human intervention to shape or transform natural phenomena, of which we are simultaneously a part.


The act of naming is an act of taming.

From its inception photography has been involved in investigating and detailing environments, helping culture to appropriate nature.


In Western philosophy, culture and nature have been posited as a binary with culture viewed as superseding, and thereby repressing, nature.

Both culture and nature are complexly inter-related, as, indeed, are masculinity and femininity.

Nature is both ‘internal’, fundamental to what constitutes us as human, and ‘out there’ in that we experience the external world through the senses, including sight.

Imagery feeds our desire for a clear sense of identity and of cultural belonging; critical imagery may question that previously accepted.


The content of images may seem natural. But representational and interpretive processes are cultural in that they are anchored in aesthetic conventions. Photographs substitute for direct encounter; they act as surrogates, mediating that which was seen through the camera viewfinder.


The spectator, even if highly tutored in the effects of aesthetic and photographic coding and of the judgements that must have been exercised by the photographer, still at one level looks ‘through’ representation at that depicted.

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